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There are two basic types of kitchen cabinets: framed and unframed. Thus there are two general types of cabinet hinges.
Framed cabinets are constructed in such a way that the hinges might show because the front frame is in the same visible plane as the doors. Cabinets without a frame do not have this challenge because the hinge is totally hidden as the frame is entirely enclosed by the door.
Most cabinet hinges have four parts: the pin, the door wing that screws into the door, the frame wing that attaches to the cabinet box and a circular 'knuckle' that connects the two wings. Cabinet hinges can also be described by which parts can be seen if a cabinet is shut or by how a door meets a frame. Some are flush to the frame and some are not. Some hinges that can be seen are decorative; they might have a variety of textures and/or finishes.
Additional cabinet hinges a professional installer may use include overlay, butt or reverse bevel. European hinges are used with unframed cabinets and cannot be seen at all. The type of hinge installed on your kitchen cabinets will depend on a variety of factors, including the cabinets themselves and your personal taste. The complexity of hinge design is one reason why professional installation is better for a kitchen remodel than a do-it-yourself approach. If you mess up hinge installation, it's likely the whole cabinet will be affected and may need to be done over.